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Canine Vaccine Explained


What Does DA2PP Stand For?
Dogs are susceptible to many contagious diseases, most of which are caused by viruses. Fortunately, we have vaccines to prevent our canine friends from succumbing to several of the worst ones. A series of DA2PP injections (three weeks apart) is given to puppies. The vaccine series is usually started at six to eight weeks of age. It is then given as an annual booster for the remainder of the dog’s life. There are four preventive agents in the DA2PP vaccine. The following is an explanation of each of those agents.

D Stands For Canine Distemper Virus
Distemper is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic dogs and other animals such as ferrets, skunks and raccoons. It is an incurable, often fatal, multisystemic disease that affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Distemper is caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV).

A2 Stands For Adenovirus type-2
P Stands For Parainfluenza Virus

Several viruses and bacteria can cause kennel cough, often at the same time. These include adenovirus type-2 (distinct from the adenovirus type 1 that causes infectious hepatitis), parainfluenza virus, and the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica. Because the infection spreads when dogs are housed together, it is often seen soon after dogs have been in kennels, hence the name "kennel cough."

Clinical signs may be variable. It is often a mild disease, but the cough may be chronic, lasting for several weeks in some cases. Common clinical signs include a loud cough often describe as a "goose honk", runny eyes and nose, swollen tonsils, wheezing, lack of appetite and depressed behavior.Most dogs with infectious tracheobronchitis will cough when the throat is rubbed or palpated. Often, the hacking cough caused by kennel cough will persist for several weeks after the infection.
There is no specific treatment for the viral infections, but many of the more severe signs are due to bacterial involvement, particularly Bordetella bronchiseptica. Antibiotics are useful against this bacterium.Some cases require prolonged treatment, but most infections resolve within one to three weeks. Mild clinical signs may linger for several weeks even when the bacteria have been eliminated. Cough suppressants and anti-inflammatory medications may provide relief in some cases.
 

P Stands For Parvovirus
Parvo is a highly contagious disease characterized by a short course and high mortality rate. The disease is caused by a virus similar to the parvovirus seen in cats. It is very resistant and may remain infectious in the environment for up to a year.

The first symptom is loss of appetite, followed by vomiting and diarrhea. The diarrhea often has a very strong smell, may contain lots of mucus and may or may not contain blood. Additionally, affected dogs often exhibit marked listlessness, depression, and fever.

Parvo may affect dogs of all ages, but is most common in unvaccinated dogs less than one year of age. Young puppies less than five months of age are usually the most severely affected, and the most difficult to treat. Infected dogs usually must be hospitalized with intensive treatment such as intravenous fluids, antibiotic and supportive care.

Leptospirosis Vaccine
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease of dogs and other mammals that primarily affects the liver or kidneys. Ingestion of infected urine or rodent-contaminated garbage is the most important means of transmission.

Bordetella Vaccine
Bordetellosis is a bacterial disease of dogs involved in causing “Kennel cough.” Because the infection spreads when dogs are housed together, it is often seen soon after dogs have been in kennels, hence the name "kennel cough."

Clinical signs may be variable. It is often a mild disease, but the cough may be chronic, lasting for several weeks in some cases. Common clinical signs include a loud cough often describe as a "goose honk", runny eyes and nose, swollen tonsils, wheezing, lack of appetite and depressed behavior.Most dogs with infectious tracheobronchitis will cough when the throat is rubbed or palpated. Often, the hacking cough caused by kennel cough will persist for several weeks after the infection.

Lyme Vaccine
Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. A spirochete is a type of bacterium.Lyme disease is transmitted to dogs through the bite of a tick. Once in the blood stream, the Lyme disease organism is carried to many parts of the body and is likely to localize in joints.

Clinical sigs are variable, but generally dogs seem to be experiencing generalized pain and may stop eating. Affected dogs have been described as if they were "walking on eggshells." Often these pets have high fevers. Dogs may also begin limping. This painful lameness often appears suddenly and may shift from one leg to another.

Influenza Vaccine
Influenza viruses represent a specific type of virus. There are actually three types (genera) of influenza viruses: type A (including the canine influenza virus), type B, and the less closely related Type C. They produce fever, joint pain, and respiratory signs with which we are all familiar. Death is unusual but stems from respiratory complications and is most common in the very old and very young.

Infection rate is high but (depending on which report you read) 20-50% will simply make antibodies and clear the infection without any signs of illness at all. The other 50-80% will get symptoms of the flu: they will have fevers, listlessness, coughing, and a snotty nose. Most dogs will recover with supportive treatment (antibiotics, perhaps nebulization / humidification, etc.). A small percentage of dogs will get pneumonia. These dogs are those at risk for death and thus support becomes more aggressive: hospitalization, intravenous fluid therapy etc. Most of these dogs will recover as long as they receive proper care.


 

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Specialty Care

Sometimes sick or injured pets need the care of a veterinary medical specialist. When that happens, VCA specialty hospitals work closely with the general practitioner veterinarians who refer cases to us in order to provide seamless veterinary care to your pet. When your pet is facing any kind of serious illness or injury, our specialty referral hospitals will provide the compassionate and expert care your beloved pet needs.

Our goal is to make sure that when you and your pet are in need that you have access to board certified specialists who are up to date on the very latest developments in their field. In our state of the art hospitals, our specialists also have access to the most sophisticated diagnostic and treatment tools and techniques from ultrasonography and endoscopy to CAT scans and even MRI.

As part of the VCA family, we have over 83 specialty hospitals across the US and Canada which provide referral specialty care, so there may be one near you. Our specialized services include: behavior, cardiology, critical care, dentistry, dermatology, integrative medicine, internal medicine, neurology, oncology, ophthalmology, radiology, rehabilitation, reproduction, and surgery.

Find a VCA Specialty Care Animal Hospital near you:

 

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Emergency Care

In case of emergency, please call us immediately. If it is after hours, please contact the Veterinary Medical Center on Bridge St. in Syracuse at (315)446-7933.

You can also contact the Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Center on Downer Street Road in Baldwinsville at (315)638-3500.

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