Snakes - Housing
What type of cage does my snake require?
You should try to provide the biggest cage possible. The type of cage you set up must be appropriate for the specific needs of the different species. Smaller species or juvenile snakes often do well in a 10 or 20 gallon aquarium, or even a plastic container (cut small air holes!). As your snake grows, he must be moved to a more comfortable and spacious enclosure. These can either be purchased commercially or built by the pet owner, using Plexiglas, glass, fiberglass or perhaps wood (but remember that wood is hard to clean and disinfect). Many people strive to create a vivarium or terrarium with the goal of creating a semi-natural environment with plants, rocks and tree branches. These require more work to maintain, but your pet may be "happier".
"All cages for snakes must be well ventilated and ESCAPE PROOF with sealed seams and a locking, secure top."
All cages for snakes must be well ventilated and ESCAPE PROOF with sealed seams and a locking, secure top. Your veterinarian or pet store may have examples of these larger enclosures to give you an idea of the proper habitat for an adult snake.
Does my snake need bedding in his cage?
Substrate, or bedding material, should be easy to clean and nontoxic to the snake. Newspaper, butcher paper, towels, or preferably Astroturf (or artificial grass) is recommended. When using Astroturf, buy two pieces and cut them to fit the bottom of the cage. With two pieces, one is placed in the cage and one is kept outside the cage, where it is clean and ready to use. As soon as the turf inside the cage becomes soiled, you can replace it with the clean, dry piece. Clean the soiled turf with ordinary soap and water (avoid harsher products unless your reptile veterinarian approves them), thoroughly rinse it, and hang it to dry, ready to be used at the next cage cleaning.
AVOID sand, gravel, wood shavings, corncob material, walnut shells, and cat litter, as these are not only difficult to clean, but can also cause intestinal impaction if eaten, either on purpose or accidentally (if the food becomes coated with this material). Cedar wood shavings are toxic to reptiles and must be avoided!
What else do I need in the cage?
Natural branches are enjoyed by the snake. Make sure they are secure and won't fall onto the snake and injure it. Ideally, the branch should slope from the bottom of the enclosure to the top, and should end near a heat or light source so the snake can bask. Rocks (large ones) in the cage also allow for basking, exploring and provide something to rub against at the time of shedding. A safe and secure hiding place is appreciated by all reptiles. Up-side-down boxes, a hollow log, a large piece of curved bark, clay pots, commercial reptile "caves" or artificial vegetation make excellent hiding spots.
A large, heavy ceramic crock or bowl (that cannot be spilled easily) with fresh clean water should be provided at all times. A good-sized dish may help maintain better humidity in the air. Some snakes enjoy soaking in this dish periodically. Many snakes will eliminate in their water bowl as well as drinking from it. Therefore you should change the water frequently and disinfect and rinse the bowl on a daily basis.
What about a source of heat?
A heat source is necessary for all reptiles. Snakes, like all reptiles, are ectotherms (also called cold-blooded, this means that they depend on external or environmental sources of heat to maintain their body heat). They need a range of temperatures to regulate their internal body temperature. Ideally, the cage should be set up so that a heat gradient is established, with one area of the tank warmer than the other end. In this way, the snake can move around its environment and warm or cool itself as needed. Purchase two thermometers (unbreakable ones that cannot be accidentally swallowed) and place one at the cooler end of the cage and one at the warmer end, near the heat source. If you position the thermometer at approximately the level where the animal will bask, you will know how hot it is at that position.
The temperature in the cage should mimic what the animal optimally experiences in its native, natural environment, and should reflect the part of the world it comes from. Generally, the cooler end of the cage should be approximately 70º-75º F (21º - 24º C), while the warmer end should be 90º - 95ºF (32º - 38º C). An inexpensive way to do this is to supply a focal heat source using a 100-watt incandescent bulb with a protected reflector hood. Alternately, you can purchase other types of heat lamps and ceramic infrared heat emitters at specialty pet stores. Use these heat sources as directed. Your heat source should be placed OUTSIDE and above one end of the cage and should be covered by a screened top to prevent the snake from either escaping or coming in direct contact with the hot bulb. At night, heat is not necessary as long as the temperature remains at 65º -70º F (18º - 21º C).
"'Hot Rocks' or 'Sizzle Rocks' are dangerous, can lead to injury, are ineffective, and should be avoided."
Heating pads beneath the cage can also be used for warmth but please speak with your veterinarian to learn the correct way to use them if you choose this form of heating.
"Hot Rocks" or "Sizzle Rocks" are dangerous, can lead to injury, are ineffective, and should be avoided!
Natural humidity requirements vary geographically and seasonally. Some homes are too dry for snakes. Depending on the species, many snakes do well with humidity between 40 and 70%. Too much humidity can also be harmful and lead to health problems. Clearly, desert species require less humidity.
What about UV-B light?
The light requirements of snakes are not well understood. While UV-B light is necessary to provide Vitamin D-3 for most reptiles, veterinarians are divided about the need for UV light for snakes. This is because snakes consume whole prey in their diets, and the prey is "nutritionally balanced" for snakes. However, providing UV light would certainly not be harmful and may be beneficial, so it would probably be wise to provide some type of UV-B light such as a Vita-Lite. Speak with local pet store or your veterinarian about their feelings regarding the need for UV-B light for your snake. Many people try to mimic the natural seasonal change in light (photoperiod) to promote good health, balance and to enhance breeding success.